Group Environment Scale


Author: Rudolf H. Moos

The Group Environment Scale (GES) assesses the social climate of groups and teams. It has been used in clinical and organizational settings to facilitate group counseling and team building, and to compare members’ and leaders’ views of their group or team. The GES is also useful for encouraging members and leaders to become involved in planning and changing the group or team, and in showing both members and leaders how their behavior influences team climate.

The GES includes three forms. Form R (Real) asks the members and leaders to describe their current group social environment as they perceive it. Form I (Ideal) asks members and leaders to describe the type of group environment they prefer. Form E (Expectations) asks members and leaders to describe their expectations of what a group will be like. All three forms (R, I, E) are included. Administration of a single form (R, I, or E) is counted as an administration, while administration of all three forms one time is counted as three administrations.

Copyright © 1994, 2002 by Rudolf H. Moos

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Features of the GES

Purpose: Assess the social climate of groups and teams.

Length: 90 items

Average completion time: 15-20 minutes

Target population: Adults working in groups or teams

Administration: For group administration.

Uses of the GES

  • Diagnose problems in group or team
  • Program evaluation
  • Leadership appraisal and improvement
  • Team building
  • Individual and team counseling
  • Team and group research

The ninety items of the GES are grouped into ten subscales with three dimensions.

Relationship Dimension
Three subscales tap the degree of commitment, concern and friendship group members show for one another, the amount of help, concern and friendship the leader shows for team members, and the amount that freedom of action and expression of feelings is encouraged in the group.


Leader Support


Personal Growth Dimension

Independence: assesses how much the group encourages independent action and expression among members.

Task Orientation: reflects how much emphasis is placed on completing concrete, practical tasks and on decision making and training.

Self-Discovery: measures how much the group encourages members’ discussion of personal problems.

Anger and Aggression: assesses the extent to which there is open expression of anger and disagreement in the group.

System Maintenance and Change Dimension
Three dimensions measure the degree of importance of clear organization, structure and rules in the group, as well as the extent to which the leader directs the group, makes decisions and enforces rules, and finally, how much the group promotes diversity and change in its own functions and activities.

Order and Organization

Leader Control


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Community Oriented Programs Environment Scale
Measures client and staff perceptions of the program environment. As one of the Social Climate Scales, the CPES has been widely used in clinical settings and program evaluation.
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Social Climate Scales: A User's Guide
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Assesses the social climate of university student living groups.
Ward Atmosphere Scale
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Work Environment Scale
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