Social Encounters Scale


Author: Michael P. Leiter

The Social Encounters Scale (SES) enables organizations and researchers to profile the social dynamics of a workplace. Workplace social dynamics are important, as they have a significant bearing on employees’ worklife experience and on workplace productivity. Employers also face increased legal liability for physical and psychological harm experienced in dysfunctional workplace social environments.

The SES can identify workplace social behaviors for study and to help the administrator build and maintain a healthy social environment in their workplace. The SES identifies the source and frequency of civility, incivility, and intimidation in the workplace. These behaviors may be received from Supervisors or Coworkers, or the behaviors may be Instigated by the survey respondent.

The SES comprises 23 items and is available for administration online or via paper/pen assessment. With license purchase, the SES can be used alone or in combination with the MBI and AWS.

Copyright © 2020 by Michael P. Leiter

You can purchase the SES Manual but other products area available for the SES such as Transform Survey Hosting, License to Reproduce and Remote Online Survey License. Contact to purchase these products.  The SES is ideal to add to an organizational survey, email or call to discuss.

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Features of the Social Encounters Scale

Purpose: Measures workplace social dynamics.

Length: 23 items

Average completion time: 10 minutes

Target Population: Working adults

Administration: For individual or group administration

Uses of the SES

  • Identify workplace social behaviors for study
  • Tool to help build & maintain a healthy workplace social environment
  • Organizational consulting


Supervisor Civility

Supervisor Incivility

Supervisor Intimidation

Coworker Civility

Coworker Incivility

Coworker Intimidation

Instigated Civility

Instigated Incivility

Instigated Intimidation

Areas of Worklife Survey
The organizational context of burnout.
Inventory of Interpersonal Problems
The method to identify interpersonal difficulties.
Maslach Burnout Inventory™ (MBI)
Recognized for more than a decade as the leading measure of burnout. The MBI assesses professional burnout in human services, education, business, and government professions.
Maslach Burnout Toolkit™
Combines the AWS and MBI forms to measure burnout with worklife context.
Profiles of Organizational Influence Strategies
Evaluates influence strategies in organizational relationships.
Social Skills Inventory
A measure of verbal, non-verbal social competence and emotional intelligence.