Social Encounters Scale


Author: Michael P. Leiter

The Social Encounters Scale (SES) enables organizations and researchers to profile the social dynamics of a workplace. Workplace social dynamics are important, as they have a significant bearing on employees’ worklife experience and on workplace productivity. Employers also face increased legal liability for physical and psychological harm experienced in dysfunctional workplace social environments.

The SES can identify workplace social behaviors for study and to help the administrator build and maintain a healthy social environment in their workplace. The SES identifies the source and frequency of civility, incivility, and intimidation in the workplace. These behaviors may be received from Supervisors or Coworkers, or the behaviors may be instigated by the survey respondent.

The SES comprises 23 items and is available for administration online or via paper/pen assessment. Purchase the license to use the SES as part of an organizational survey e.g., with the MBI + AWS, or as a discrete assessment.

Copyright © 2020 by Michael P. Leiter

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Showing 1 - 3 of 3 items
  • $50.00
    Includes details on reliability, validity, scoring, etc. and a review-only copy of the SES form. PDFs are not refundable.
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  • $2.50
    Minimum purchase of 50. Allows you to administer the SES as an online survey via a non-Mind Garden survey system or as a paper and pencil survey. The downloadable PDF file includes one copy of the SES, scoring key, and permission to administer the SES up to the quantity purchased. The PDF is non-refundable.
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  • $2.50
    Minimum purchase of 20. Allows you to administer the SES as an online survey using Mind Garden's Transform™ System. Includes data collection: data file with participants' raw data and raw scale scores. Customization services are available.
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Features of the Social Encounters Scale

Purpose: Measures workplace social dynamics.

Length: 23 items

Average completion time: 10 minutes

Target Population: Working adults

Administration: For individual or group administration

Uses of the SES

  • Identify workplace social behaviors for study
  • Tool to help build & maintain a healthy workplace social environment
  • Organizational consulting


Supervisor Civility

Supervisor Incivility

Supervisor Intimidation

Coworker Civility

Coworker Incivility

Coworker Intimidation

Instigated Civility

Instigated Incivility

Instigated Intimidation

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