Inventory of Interpersonal Problems


Authors: Leonard M. Horowitz, Lynn E. Alden, Jerry S. Wiggins, & Aaron L. Pincus

The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) is a self-report instrument that identifies a person's most salient interpersonal difficulties. Even if a person begins a clinical interview by describing uncomfortable feelings or distressing thoughts, a large number of interpersonal problems usually surface within the first session. Understanding and resolving interpersonal problems is considered an important step for alleviating common symptoms and syndromes, including depression and anxiety. The IIP has two forms: IIP-64 and IIP-32 (brief version developed for screening purposes).

The IIP enables examinees to describe the kinds of interpersonal problems that have been most salient in their recent experience across diverse interpersonal situations. The items provide representative interpersonal problems that are commonly reported in initial interviews. Summary scores that the test provides help in interviewing the person for prospective positions in the business world. The IIP is also often used in counseling and psychotherapy (group as well as individual treatments), where it is used to help clients and psychotherapists focus on specific difficulties and later assess changes that have occurred since treatment began.

Copyright © 2000 by Leonard M. Horowitz, Lynn E. Alden, Jerry S. Wiggins, & Aaron L. Pincus

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  • $50.00
    Includes details on reliability, validity, scoring, etc. and a review-only copy of the IIP form. PDFs are not refundable.
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    Builds a report that interprets an individual's IIP 64 scores. You invite participants to take the survey and Transform™ generates their reports.
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    Interprets and reports on your IIP-64 scores. You complete the survey and Transform™ generates your report. Transform will connect this report to the "Send To" email provided at checkout. Note: This product is for a single use, with automated survey administration. For multiple uses, buy instead the Individual Report product in quantity needed.
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  • $2.50
    Minimum purchase of 20. Allows you to administer the IIP-64 as an online survey using Mind Garden's Transform™ System. Includes data collection: data file with participants' raw data and raw scale scores. Optionally, Individual Reports can be generated from the collected data - requires the purchase of report licenses. Customization services are available.
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  • $2.50
    Minimum purchase of 20. Allows you to administer the IIP-32 as an online survey using Mind Garden's Transform™ System. Includes data collection: data file with participants' raw data and raw scale scores. Customization services are available.
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  • $2.50
    Minimum purchase of 50. Allows you to administer the IIP as an online survey via a non-Mind Garden survey system or as a paper and pencil survey. The downloadable PDF file includes one copy of the IIP (all forms), scoring key, and permission to administer the IIP up to the quantity purchased. The PDF is non-refundable.
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  • $60.00
    Includes details on reliability, validity, scoring, etc. and a review-only copy of the IIP form. This is a paper product. The manual will be printed, bound, and shipped to you (FedEx shipping costs apply).
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Features of the IIP

Purpose: Identify a person's most salient interpersonal difficulties


IIP-64: 64 items

IIP-32: 32 items

Average completion time: 10-15 minutes

Target population: Ages 18 years and older

Administration: For individual or group adiministration

Norms: The IIP normative sample was based on a national standardization sample of 400 men and 400 women aged 18-89. A stratified sampling plan ensured that the standardization samples included representative proportions of adults according to the selected demographic variables of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and education.

Benefits of the IIP

  • Determines whether an individual is sufficiently distressed to justify treatment for interpersonal problems.
  • Reveals the individual's level of interpersonal difficulties.
  • Pinpoints the particular area of interpersonal problems that the individual finds most distressing.
  • Based upon the circumplex model, which provides a system for conceptualizing and organizing interpersonal difficulties.

Uses of the IIP

  • Individual treatment planning
  • End of treatment evaluation
  • Personality research

Researchers from many different theoretical perspectives have used the IIP to compare success in treating different psychiatric syndromes and different personality disorders. It also enables researchers to compare the efficacy of different forms of treatment. It is frequently used in research in personality and social psychology to compare the interpersonal problems of individuals with different personality characteristics (e.g., different attachment styles) in different types of situations. It also provides a quick graphical profile that clients can easily understand.


Domineering/ Controlling - A high score indicates that the person finds it difficult to relax control over other people. People with high scores have described themselves as too controlling or manipulative.

Vindictive/Self-Centered - A high score indicates problems of hostile dominance. The person readily experiences and expresses anger and irritability, is preoccupied with getting revenge, and fights too much with other people.

Cold/Distant - A high score indicates minimal feelings of affection for and little connection with other people.

Socially Inhibited - A high score indicates feelings of anxiety, timidity, or embarrassment in the presence of other people.

Nonassertive - A high score indicates a severe lack of self-confidence, low self-esteem, and severe reluctance to assert oneself over other people.

Overly Accommodating - A high score indicates excessive readiness to yield in a friendly way to the influence of others.

Self-Sacrificing - A high score indicates a strong tendency to empathize with others in need and nurture them, even when doing so requires the person to sacrifice one's own needs for the sake of those who seem to be in need.

Intrusive/Needy - A high score indicates a need to be both friendly and controlling. People with high scores describe themselves as excessively friendly, outgoing, and sociable to an extreme degree that others experience as excessively intrusive into their affairs.

If you are unable to find the translation you need, you can request permission to make a translation.

Available with IIP License to Administer:
These translations are available free of charge with your purchase of the license. . Translations are provided in a separate pdf-format file. Select the language from the Translation drop-down list. Need multiple translations? Contact us.

  • Arabic (IIP-32 Only)
  • Dutch (IIP-32 Only)
  • Finnish (IIP-32 Only)
  • French (IIP-32 Only)
  • Greek
  • Korean (IIP-32 Only)
  • Malay
  • Polish
  • Slovenian (IIP-32 Only)
  • Spanish

No translations are available with the IIP Transform™ Survey Hosting.

Note: We cannot assure translation quality — many are made by individual researchers and we are not necessarily familiar with the particular language or dialect. Some of the translations are partial and typically do not have validation data. Basically, we offer whatever is available to facilitate your work.

Available through other publishers

  • Danish - Hogrefe Psykologisk Forlag A/S, Virum, Denmark
  • German - Beltz Test GmbH, Göttingen, Germany
  • Norwegian - Hogrefe Psykologisk Forlag A/S, Virum, Denmark
  • Swedish - Hogrefe Psykologiforlaget AB, Stockholm, Sweden
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