The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults™ (STAI-AD) is the definitive instrument for measuring anxiety in adults. It clearly differentiates between the temporary condition of “state anxiety” and the more general and long-standing quality of “trait anxiety”. It helps professionals distinguish between a client’s feelings of anxiety and depression. The inventory’s simplicity makes it ideal for evaluating individuals with lower educational backgrounds. Adapted in more than forty languages, the STAI is the leading measure of personal anxiety worldwide. The STAI has forty questions with a range of four possible responses to each. Note that the STAI Form X (the previous form) is available from Mind Garden to match pre-1983 research.
Copyright © 1968, 1977 by Charles D. Spielberger
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults™ is a trademark of Mind Garden, Inc.
Features of the STAI-AD
Purpose: Determines anxiety in a specific situation and as a general trait
Length: 40 items (two 20-item scales)
Average completion time: 10 minutes
Target Population: Ages 16 and older with at least a 6th grade reading level comprehension
Administration: For individual or group administration
Norms: Manual provides norms for clinical patients, high school and college students, and working adults
Uses of the STAI-AD
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y is the definitive instrument for measuring anxiety in adults. The STAI clearly differentiates between the temporary condition of "state anxiety" and the more general and long-standing quality of "trait anxiety."
Scale: State Anxiety (S-Anxiety)
The essential qualities evaluated by the STAI S-Anxiety scale are feelings of apprehension, tension, nervousness, and worry. Scores on the STAI S-Anxiety scale increase in response to physical danger and psychological stress, and decrease as a result of relaxation training.
Scale: Trait Anxiety (T-Anxiety)
On the STAI T-Anxiety scale, consistent with the trait anxiety construct, psychoneurotic and depressed patients generally have high scores.
More information about S-Anxiety:
From the Manual:
"State and trait anxiety are analogous in certain respects to kinetic and potential energy. S-Anxiety, like kinetic energy, refers to a palpable reaction or process taking place at a given time and level of intensity. T-Anxiety, like potential energy, refers to individual differences in reactions.
"Potential energy refers to differences in the amount of kinetic energy associated with a particular physical object, which may be released if triggered by an appropriate force. Trait Anxiety implies differences between people in the disposition to respond to stressful situations with varying amounts of S-Anxiety. But whether or not people who differ in T-Anxiety will show corresponding differences in S-Anxiety depends on the extent to which each of them perceives a specific situation as psychologically dangerous or threatening, and this is greatly influenced by each individual’s past experience."
--Charles D. Spielberger, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Manual
If you are unable to find the translation you need, you can request permission to make a translation.
Other Editions of the STAI Manual:
Available with STAI-AD Transform™ Survey Hosting:
Regardless of which translation you order, participants can select and change any of these languages while taking the survey.
Available with STAI-AD License to Reproduce and Remote Online Survey License:
These translations are available free of charge with your purchase of the license. Each PDF file contains the English form and the translated form on separate pages. To order, select your language from the Translation drop-down list on the product page. Need multiple translations? Contact us.
Note: We cannot assure translation quality — many are made by individual researchers and we are not necessarily familiar with the particular language or dialect. Some of the translations are partial and typically do not have validation data. Basically, we offer whatever is available to facilitate your work.