State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults™


Author: Charles D. Spielberger.

The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults™ (STAI-AD) is the definitive instrument for measuring anxiety in adults. It clearly differentiates between the temporary condition of "state anxiety" and the more general and long-standing quality of "trait anxiety." It helps professionals distinguish between a client’s feelings of anxiety and depression. The inventory’s simplicity makes it ideal for evaluating individuals with lower educational backgrounds. Adapted in more than forty languages, the STAI is the leading measure of personal anxiety worldwide. The STAI has forty questions with a range of four possible responses to each. Note that the STAI Form X (the previous form) is available from Mind Garden to match pre-1983 research.

Copyright © 1968, 1977 by Charles D. Spielberger

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults™ is a trademark of Mind Garden, Inc.

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  • $50.00
    Includes details on reliability, validity, scoring, etc. and a review-only copy of the STAI-AD form. PDFs are not refundable.
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  • $15.00
    Builds a report that interprets an individual's STAI-AD scores. You invite participants to take the survey and Transform™ generates their reports.
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  • $20.00
    Interprets and reports on your STAI-AD scores. You complete the survey and Transform™ generates your report. Transform will connect this report to the "Send To" email provided at checkout. Note: This product is for a single use, with automated survey administration. For multiple uses, buy instead the Individual Report product in quantity needed.
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  • $200.00
    Builds a report that calculates and summarizes average STAI-AD scores for a group of participants.
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  • $2.50
    Minimum purchase of 20. Allows you to administer the STAI-AD as an online survey using Mind Garden's Transform™ System. Includes data collection: data file with participants' raw data and raw scale scores. Optionally, Individual Reports and Group Reports can be generated from the collected data - requires the purchase of report licenses. Customization services are available.
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  • $2.50
    Minimum purchase of 50. Allows you to administer the STAI-AD as an online survey via a non-Mind Garden survey system or as a paper and pencil survey. The downloadable PDF file includes one copy of the STAI-AD, scoring key, and permission to administer the STAI-AD up to the quantity purchased. The PDF is non-refundable.
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  • $50.00
    Inclui detalhes sobre a confiabilidade, validade, pontuação, etc, e uma cópia só de reexame da forma STAI-AD em Português. PDFs não são reembolsáveis.
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  • $60.00
    Includes details on reliability, validity, scoring, etc. and a review-only copy of the STAI-AD form. This is a paper product. The manual will be printed, bound, and shipped to you (FedEx shipping costs apply).
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Features of the STAI-AD

Purpose: Determines anxiety in a specific situation and as a general trait

Length: 40 items (two 20-item scales)

Average completion time: 10 minutes

Target Population: Ages 16 and older with at least a 6th grade reading level comprehension

Administration: For individual or group administration

Norms: Manual provides norms for clinical patients, high school and college students, and working adults

Uses of the STAI-AD

  • Psychological and health research
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Differentiating anxiety from depression
  • Assessment of clinical anxiety in medical, surgical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric patients


The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y is the definitive instrument for measuring anxiety in adults. The STAI clearly differentiates between the temporary condition of "state anxiety" and the more general and long-standing quality of "trait anxiety."

Scale: State Anxiety (S-Anxiety)
The essential qualities evaluated by the STAI S-Anxiety scale are feelings of apprehension, tension, nervousness, and worry. Scores on the STAI S-Anxiety scale increase in response to physical danger and psychological stress, and decrease as a result of relaxation training.

Scale: Trait Anxiety (T-Anxiety)
On the STAI T-Anxiety scale, consistent with the trait anxiety construct, psychoneurotic and depressed patients generally have high scores.

More information about S-Anxiety:

  • Evaluates how respondents felt at a particular time in the recent past and how they anticipate they will feel either in a specific situation that is likely to be encountered in the future or in a variety of hypothetical situations.
  • Is found to be a sensitive indicator of changes in transitory anxiety experienced by clients and patients in counseling, psychotherapy, and behavior-modification programs.
  • Assesses the level induced by stressful experimental procedures and by unavoidable real-life stressors such as imminent surgery, dental treatment, job interviews, or important school tests
  • For screening high school and college students and military recruits for anxiety problems, and for evaluating the immediate and long-term outcome of psychotherapy, counseling, behavior modification, and drug-treatment programs.
  • Proven useful for identifying persons with high levels of neurotic anxiety and for selecting subjects for psychological experiments who differ in motivation or drive level.

From the Manual:

"State and trait anxiety are analogous in certain respects to kinetic and potential energy. S-Anxiety, like kinetic energy, refers to a palpable reaction or process taking place at a given time and level of intensity. T-Anxiety, like potential energy, refers to individual differences in reactions.

"Potential energy refers to differences in the amount of kinetic energy associated with a particular physical object, which may be released if triggered by an appropriate force. Trait Anxiety implies differences between people in the disposition to respond to stressful situations with varying amounts of S-Anxiety. But whether or not people who differ in T-Anxiety will show corresponding differences in S-Anxiety depends on the extent to which each of them perceives a specific situation as psychologically dangerous or threatening, and this is greatly influenced by each individual’s past experience."

--Charles D. Spielberger, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Manual

If you are unable to find the translation you need, you can request permission to make a translation.

Other Editions of the STAI Manual:

  • Manual: Edição Português

Available with STAI-AD Transform™ Survey Hosting: 
Regardless of which translation you order, participants can select and change any of these languages while taking the survey.

  • Czech
  • Danish
  • Finnish
  • French
  • German
  • Italian
  • Norwegian
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Romanian
  • Spanish
  • Swedish

Available with STAI-AD License to Administer: 
These translations are available free of charge with your purchase of the license. Translations are provided in a separate pdf-format file. Select the language from the Translation drop-down list. Need multiple translations? Contact us.

  • Afrikaans
  • Arabic
  • Bengali
  • Bulgarian
  • Burmese--Myanmar - Y-1 Form only
  • Cambodian
  • Chinese-Cantonese
  • Chinese--Mandarin
  • Croatian
  • Czech
  • Danish
  • Dutch
  • Dutch--Belgium
  • English--Canada
  • English--New Zealand
  • English--United Kingdom
  • Estonian
  • Finnish
  • French
  • French--Belgium
  • French--Canada
  • German
  • German--Switzerland
  • Greek
  • Hebrew
  • Hindi
  • Hungarian
  • Icelandic
  • Indonesian
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Kannada
  • Korean
  • Lithuanian
  • Malay
  • Malayalam
  • Maltese
  • Marathi
  • Nepali
  • Norwegian
  • Oriya
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Portuguese--Brazil
  • Romanian
  • Russian
  • Russian--Estonia
  • Serbian
  • Sesotho
  • Setswana
  • Slovak
  • Slovenian
  • Somali
  • Spanish
  • Swedish
  • Swedish--Finland
  • Tagalog
  • Tamil
  • Thai
  • Urdu
  • Zulu

Note: We cannot assure translation quality — many are made by individual researchers and we are not necessarily familiar with the particular language or dialect. Some of the translations are partial and typically do not have validation data. Basically, we offer whatever is available to facilitate your work.

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