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Psychological Capital for Assessment and Development

Developing Psychological Capital

Fred Luthans, Bruce J. Avolio, & James B. Avey

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Basis for PsyCap

Psychological Capital (PsyCap) is a positive state-like capacity that is defined as "an individual's positive psychological state of development and is characterized by:

  1. having confidence (self-efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks;
  2. making a positive attribution (optimism) about succeeding now and in the future;
  3. persevering toward goals and, when necessary, redirecting paths to goals (hope) in order to succeed; and
  4. when beset by problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond (resilience) to attain success."
    --Luthans, Youssef & Avolio, Psychological Capital (Oxford University Press, 2007),

Thus, the PsyCap consists of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism (sometimes referred to as HERO).

 

PCQ - the Instrument for measuring PsyCap

The PCQ, a measure of PsyCap, has undergone extensive psychometric analyses and support from samples representing service, manufacturing, education, high-tech, military and cross cultural sectors. Each of the four components in PsyCap are measured by six items. The resulting score represents an individual's level of positive PsyCap.

PCQ Multi-rater Report

This report is based on rating yourself and having others rate you using the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ). It will help you to develop a plan for enhancing your personal and leadership effectiveness in terms of the PsyCap state-like HERO components - Hope, Efficacy, Resilience and Optimism.
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  $75.00 envelope icon

PCQ Multi-rater Group Report

In general, a Group Report saves time by doing the group calculations and providing limited interpretation. The purchase of a Group Report must be accompanied by a purchase of Licenses (Online Surveys) since there must be data available for the Group Report to run. You will need one Group Report per campaign (campaign = Online Survey grouping).

  web admin icon $250.00

If you need to order more than one Group Report, please contact us

PCQ Self-Only Report

Psychological Capital can be measured with the use of self-only, or self-perception, ratings. The result is one's "self perspective" (PCQ Self-Only Report) as opposed to "what others perceive in you" (PCQ 360 Multi-Rater Report).

While both "self" and "other" ratings are included in the multi-rater report, the PCQ Self-Only Report -- as the name indicates -- provides the self-perspective without the other-rating perspective.

The PCQ Self-Only Report is useful for teaching the concepts of Psychological Capital. It can be used when assessment time is limited and when there is a desire to create general awareness of -- and interest in -- the concept of Psychological Capital.
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  $25.00 envelope icon

PCQ Self-Only Group Report

In general, a Group Report saves time by doing the group calculations and providing limited interpretation. The purchase of a Group Report must be accompanied by a purchase of Licenses (Online Surveys) since there must be data available for the Group Report to run. You will need one Group Report per campaign (campaign = Online Survey grouping).

  web admin icon $250.00

If you need to order more than one Group Report, please contact us

The PsyCap Trainer's Guide

The Psychological Capital (PsyCap) Trainer's Guide is a resource tool designed to aid trainers in developing a workshop for teaching about Psychological Capital and for how to use the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) to create positive behavioral change.

The guide is a two-phase intervention designed for leadership development through psychological capital. Each of the two phases is designed to be a stand-alone intervention. Phase 1 of the intervention can be applied to a wide array of populations including students and professionals. It is designed to build participant psychological capital. Phase 2 requires that participants be at some level of leadership responsibility where they are providing direction to followers under their direct influence. The second phase is designed to provide strategies for -- and efficacy to -- build follower psychological capital. Both phases are best accomplished in conjunction with the multi-rater assessment of Psychological Capital so that the trainees have a perspective of how their Psychological Capital is viewed by those around them.

     
Digital download (PDF)

 

    $100.00 PDF icon

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Example Items & Scale for the Rater Form

Instructions

Below are statements that describe how you may think about the person listed above right now. Use the following scale to indicate your level of agreement or disagreement with each statement.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4 5 6

 

1. This person feels confident analyzing a long-term problem to find a solution. 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. If this person should find him/herself in a jam at work, he/she could think of many ways to get out of it. 1 2 3 4 5 6
13. When this person has a setback at work, he/she has trouble recovering from it, moving on. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Copyright © 2007 Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) by Fred Luthans, Ph.D., Bruce J. Avolio, Ph.D., & James A. Avey, Ph.D. All rights reserved in all medium. Distributed by Mind Garden, Inc.

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References/Resources

Books:

Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., & Youseff, C. (2007). Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Avolio, B.J., & Luthans, F. (2006). High impact leader: Moments matter in authentic leadership development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Articles:

Avey, J.B., Reichard, R.J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K.H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22, no. 2, 127-152.

From the Abstract: The present meta-analysis included 51 independent samples (representing a total of N = 12,567 employees) that met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated the expected significant positive relationships between PsyCap and desirable employee attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychological well-being), desirable employee behaviors (citizenship), and multiple measures of performance (self, supervisor evaluations, and objective). There was also a significant negative relationship between PsyCap and undesirable employee attitudes (cynicism, turnover intentions, job stress, and anxiety) and undesirable employee behaviors (deviance).

Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B., & Norman, S.M. (2007).  Positive psychological capital:  Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction.  Personnel Psychology, 60, 541-572.

Luthans, F., Norman, S.M., Avolio, B.J., & Avey, J.B. (2008). The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate: Employee performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 219-238.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Avolio, B.J. (2007).  Investing and developing positive organizational behavior. The emergence of psychological capital. In Cooper, C.L., & Nelson, D. (Eds.) Positive organizational behavior: Accentuating the positive at work(pp.9-24). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Luthans, F., & Youssef, (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33, 321-349.

Luthans, F., Avey, J.B., Avolio, B.J., Norman, S., Combs, G.M. (2006).  Psychological capital development:  A micro intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 27, 387-393.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1, 249-271.

Youssef, C.M., & Luthans, F. (2012). Positive global leadership. Journal of World Business. 47, 539-547.

Adapted from:

Parker, S. (1998). Enhancing role-breadth self-efficacy: The roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 835-852.

Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247.

Snyder, C.R. Sympson, S., Ybasco, F., Borders, T., Babyak, M, & Higgens, R. (1996). Development and validation of the state hope scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321-335.

Wagnild, G.M., & Young, H.M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resiliency scale. Journal of Nursing management. 1(2), 165-178.

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