Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ + Authentic Leadership Questionnaire


MLQ Authors: Bernard M. Bass & Bruce J. Avolio

ALQ Authors: Bruce J. Avolio, William L. Gardner, & Fred O. Walumbwa

The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ (MLQ) measures a broad range of leadership types from passive leaders, to leaders who give contingent rewards to followers, to leaders who transform their followers into becoming leaders themselves. Highly transformational leaders can, however, be highly effective without being authentic (e.g. Hitler), as defined below.

The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) measures key components of authentic leadership:

  • Self Awareness: To what degree is the leader aware of his or her strengths, limitations, how others see him or her and how the leader impacts others?
  • Transparency: To what degree does the leader reinforce a level of openness with others that provides them with an opportunity to be forthcoming with their ideas, challenges and opinions?
  • Ethical/Moral: To what degree does the leader set a high standard for moral and ethical conduct?
  • Balanced Processing: To what degree does the leader solicit sufficient opinions and viewpoints prior to making important decisions?

This combination of instruments is offered for the convenience of conducting a single survey rather than two separate surveys on Mind Garden's Transform system. For purchase of Reports or for PDF licenses, see each instrument separately.

MLQ Copyright © 1995 by Bernard Bass & Bruce J. Avolio; ALQ Copyright © 2007 by Bruce J. Avolio, William L. Gardner, & Fred O. Walumbwa
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ is a trademark of Mind Garden, Inc.

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Features of the ALQ + MLQ

Purpose: Measure transformational leadership along with authenticity in leadership

Length: 61 items

Average completion time: 25-30 minutes

Target population: Working adults

Administration: For individual or group administration

Uses of the ALQ + MLQ

  • Leadership assessment and development
  • Career/Worklife assessment
  • Leadership research


MLQ Scales

Transformational Leadership:

Builds Trust (Idealized Attributes)

Acts with Integrity (Idealized Behaviors)

Encourages Others (Inspirational Motivation)

Encourages Innovative Thinking (Intellectual Stimulation)

Coaches & Develops People (Individualized Consideration)

Transactional Leadership:

Rewards Acheivement (Contingent Reward)

Monitors Deviations & Mistakes (Management-by-Exception: Active)


Fights Fires (Management-by-Exception: Passive)

Avoids Involvement (Laissez-Faire)

Outcomes of Leadership:

Generates Extra Effort

Is Productive (Effectiveness)

Generates Satisfaction

ALQ Scales

Self Awareness



Balanced Processing

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View MLQ Books

Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Avolio, B. J. (2005). Leadership development in balance: Made/born. NJ: Erlbaum & Associates.

Avolio, B. J. (2011). Full range leadership development (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Avolio, B. J. & Bass, B. M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership: Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Avolio, B. J., & Luthans, F. (2006). High impact leader: Moments matter in authentic leadership development. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Individual, military and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bass B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (Eds.). (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bass, B. M. & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. M. & Riggio, R. E. (2005). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sosik, J. J. (2015). Leading with character: Stories of valor and virtue and the principles they teach (2nd ed.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Sosik, J. J. & Jung, D. I. (2010). Full range leadership development: Pathways for people, profit and planet. New York: Routledge/Psychology Press.

View MLQ Articles

Antonakis, J., Avolio B. J., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (2003). Context and leadership: an examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), 261-295.

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. (1999). Reexamining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 7, 441-462.

Barling, J., Weber, J., & Kelloway, E. K. (1996). Effects of transformational leadership training on attitudinal and financial outcomes: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 827-832.

Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologist, 52(2),130-139.

Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I. & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 207-218.

Balthazard, P. A., Waldman, D. A., Thatcher, R. W., & Hannah, S.T. (2012). Differentiating transformational and non-transformational leaders on the basis of neurological imaging. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(2), 244-258.

Block, L. (2003). The leadership-culture connection: An exploratory investigation. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 24(6). 318-334.

Bono, J. E., Hooper, A. C., & Yoon, D. J. (2012). Impact of rater personality on transformational and transactional leadership ratings. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 132-145.

Breevart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., Sleebos, D. M., & Maduro, V. (2014). Uncovering the underlying relationship between transformational leaders and followers’ task performance. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 13(4), 194-203.

Brown, D.J. & Keeping, L.M. (2005). Elaborating the construct of transformational leadership: The role of affect. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(2), 245-272.

Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J.,& Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 735-744.

Eagly, A. H. Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & Van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles : A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin 129, 4, 569-591.

Eisenbeiss, S. A., van Knippenberg, D., & Boerner, S. (2008). Transformational leadership and team innovation: Integrating team climate principles. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1438-1446.

Hamstra, M. R. W., Van Yperen, N. W., Wisse, B., & Sassenberg, K. (2011). Transformational-transactional leadership styles and followers’ regulatory focus: Fit reduces followers’ turnover intentions. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10(4), 182-186.

Hinkin, T. R. & Schrieshiem, C. A. (2008). An examination of 'nonleadership': From laissez-faire leadership to leader reward omission and punishment omission. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1234-1248.

Hinkin, T. R. & Schriesheim, C. A. (2008). A theoretical and empirical examination of the transactional and non-leadership dimensions of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(5), 501-513.

Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated business business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 891–902.

Johnson, A. M., Vernon, P. A., Harris, J. A., Jang, K. L. (2004). A behavior genetic investigation of the relationship between leadership and personality. Twin Research, 7(1), 27-32.

Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89 (5), 755-­768.

Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S. C., Jonas, K., Van Quaquebeke, N., & Van Dick, R. (2012). How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self‐determination‐based analysis of employees' needs as mediating links. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 1031-1052.

Li, C. & Shi, K. (2003). Transformational leadership and its relationship with leader effectiveness. Psychological Science (China), 26(1), 115-117.

Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 609-623.

Zarandi, A., Ghorbani, N., Alavi, S. B. (2012). Relationship between five-factor of personality and transformational leadership based on the other-appraisal of subordinates & super ordinates. Psychological Research, 14 (2), 96 - 111.

Zhu, W., Avolio, B. J., Riggio, R. E., Sosik, J. J. (2011). The effects of transformational leadership on follower and group ethics. The Leadership Quarterly,10, 801-817.

View ALQ Books

Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

Gardner, W.L., Avolio, B.J., & Walumbwa, F. (2006). Authentic Leadership Theory and Practice: Origins, effects and development. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI Press.

View ALQ Articles

Avolio, B.J. (2011). Pursing authentic leadership development, In N. Nohria, & R. Khurana (eds), The Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Avolio, B.J., & Chan, A. (2008). The dawning of a new era for genuine leadership development. In Hodgkinson, G., & Ford, K. (eds.) International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23.

Avolio, B.J., & Gardner, W.L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338.

Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L., Walumbwa, F.O., Luthans, F., & May, D. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders’ impact follower attitudes and behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 801-823.

Avolio, B.J., Griffith, J., Walumbwa, F., & Wernsing, T. (2010). What is authentic leadership. development? Handbook of Positive Psychology and Work. UK: Oxford Press.

Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Zimmerman, C. (2014). Authentic leadership theory, research and practice: Steps taken and steps that remain. In D. Day, Oxford Handbook of Leadership and Organizations, Oxford, 331 - 356. Oxford University Press.

Avolio, B.J., & Wernsing, T. S. (2008). Practicing authentic leadership. In Lopez, S. J. (Ed.). Positive psychology: Exploring the best in people. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company, pp. 147-165.

Gardner, W.L., Avolio, B.J., Luthans, F., May, D.R., & Walumbwa, F.O. (2005). Can you see the real me? A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 434-372.

Hannah, S.T., & Avolio, B.J. (2011). Leader character, ethos and virtue: Individual and collective considerations. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 989-984.

Hannah, S. T., & Avolio, B. J. (2011). Moral potency: Building the capacity for character-based leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal, 62, 692-310.

Hannah, S.T., Avolio, B.J., & May, D.R. (2011). Building moral capacity: Toward a holistic development model. Academy of Management Review, 36, 663-685.

Hannah, S.T., Avolio, B.J, & Walumbwa, F.O. (2011). Authentic leadership and effects on follower moral courage, psychological capital, and performance. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21, 555-57.

Norman, S.M., Avolio, B.J., & Luthans, F. (2010) The impact of positivity and transparency on trust in leader and their perceived effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 350-364.

Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., Cunha, M. P. (2012). Authentic leadership promoting employees' psychological capital and creativity. Journal of Business Research, 65(3), 429-437.

Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L., Wernsing, T.S., Peterson, S.J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89-126.

Wang, H., Sui, Y., Luthans, F., Wang, D., & Wu, Y. (2014). Impact of authentic leadership on performance: Role of followers' positive psychological capital and relational processes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(1), 5-21.

Woolley, L., Caza, A., & Levy, L. (2011). Authentic leadership and follower development: Psychological capital, positive work climate, and gender. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18(4), 438 - 448.

View Citations

American Psychological Association press release reports that the MLQ predicts leadership in battlefield simulations. See "Leadership Styles That Use Rewards and Shared Values Help Platoons Perform Well in Simulated Combat Situations: Implications for Leadership Training in the Military" at the American Psychological Association (3/26/03).

How transformational leadership works: Kaiser, Robert B. and Robert Hogan and S. Bartholomew Craig (2008). "Leadership and the fate of organizations." American Psychologist, 63(2) 96-110.
"Research on how leaders affect followers' self-concepts indicates that transformational leadership works by influencing followers to identify with a collective enterprise and to internalize group aspirations. Transactional leadership appeals to followers' self-interest, but transformational leadership changes the way followers see themselves—from isolated individuals to members of a larger group. Transformational leaders do this by modeling collective commitment (e.g., through self-sacrifice and the use of “we” instead of “I”), emphasizing the similarity of group members, and reinforcing collective goals, shared values, and common interests. When followers see themselves as members of a collective, they tend to endorse group values and goals, and this enhances their motivation to contribute to the greater good."

Research findings on transformational leadership from "Context and leadership: an examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire" by John Antonakis, Bruce J. Avolio and Nagaraj Sivasubramaniam, The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), June 2003, 261-295:

  • Transformational leaders created greater alignment around strategic visions and missions.
  • Transformational leadership behavior factors are associated with organizational sales increases, market share, earnings and ROI.
  • Scores on Transformational leadership predict individual and group performance.
  • Transformational leadership has been found to explain between 45% and 60% of organizational performance.
  • Transformational leaders created greater unit cohesion, commitment, and lower turnover.
  • Transformational leadership predicted higher levels of product innovation in R & D teams.
  • Transformational leaders created safer work environments.
  • Transformational leadership training has been shown to improve leadership and associated performance over time.


Avolio - Full Range Leadership Development
Bruce J. Avolio (2011). Full Range Leadership Development (Second Edition). Sage.

A practical guide to leadership development based on the world's most thoroughly researched leadership development model.

Conversational and accessible, this Second Edition of Bruce J. Avolio's groundbreaking book uses the full range leadership development model as an organizing framework and shows how it can be directly applied to improving leadership at the individual, team, and organizational levels. Filled with examples that show how the full range model comes to life in today's global world, Full Range Leadership Development, Second Edition, demonstrates how people, timing, resources, the context of interaction, and expected results in performance and motivation all contribute to effective leadership.

Over the last decade, the full range model has become the most researched model in the leadership literature—and the most validated—and has been proven to be an accurate guide for developing exemplary leadership in diverse cultures, organizations, and leadership positions. The new edition shows how the process of leadership development is linked to validation and how the process of validation informs accelerated leadership development.

Sosik FRLD

John J. Sosik and Don I. Jung (2010). Full Range Leadership Development: Pathways for People, Profit and Planet. Taylor and Francis.

It has been more than 20 years since Bernie Bass presented an integrated overview of full range leadership development. This has been the standard for providing leadership training around the world in business, military, religious and educational contexts. Penn State University’s master of leadership development program is directed by John J. Sosik and uses these transactional –transformational leadership paradigms as their foundation for their courses. This book can be used as a main textbook for this course and supplement any IO course in the area of leadership development.

Full range leadership development strives to grow transformational leadership in organizations at all levels, including followers, thereby generating numerous positive outcomes at all levels. Organizations that support and develop transformational leadership across organizational levels are more productive and profitable, attract and retain high quality associates, promote creativity and innovation, garner trust and commitment from employees, and are strategically positioned to respond well to changes in the market.

This book presents the different theories of leadership and concentrate on the process model of Full Range Leadership that explains the concepts and procedures by which leaders affect their followers (individual leadership), teams (leader to team), and organizations (leader to larger systems). This book can be used by practitioners or students, as the authors provide practical action steps for how to best develop and display behaviors in the Full Range Leadership Development model.

Adjective Check List
Assesses personality traits with a full sphere of descriptive adjectives. The ACL provides a convenient, standardized method for recording and generating meaning for personal attributes of an individual. The ACL form can be used for self or observer ratings and Transform provides self or multi-rater assessment and reporting.
Areas of Worklife Survey
The organizational context of burnout.
Authentic Leadership Questionnaire
Measures the components that comprise Authentic Leadership: self awareness, transparency, ethical/moral behavior, and balanced processing.
Bass Orientation Inventory
Measures the core elements of interpersonal behavior in organizations: self, interaction and task.
Developing the Leader Within
Developmental exercises to help you improve your leadership skills.
Hoffman Vocational Values Scale
Measures workplace self-actualization.
Leader Efficacy Questionnaire
Based on Leader Self and Means Efficacy Theory, the LEQ is unique because it captures both leaders' self-efficacy, as well as leaders' beliefs in the extent that those with whom they interact will support their leadership.
Moral Potency Questionnaire
A measure of moral potency that has been shown to predict various ethical attitudes and behaviors of individuals, and can be used for reflection of self and actions, and help in selecting goals and support to facilitate growth as a moral actor.
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™
The benchmark measure of transformational leadership.
Organizational Description Questionnaire
Measures how often each member of the organization perceives the culture of their unit, department, or organization, to be using transformational or transactional leadership styles.
Psychological Capital Questionnaire
Measuring the Resource of Psychological Capital - Hope, Efficacy, Resilience and Optimism
Psychological Ownership Questionnaire
Assessment of two theoretically derived, unique forms of psychological ownership: Preventative and Promotive.
Social Skills Inventory
A measure of verbal, non-verbal social competence and emotional intelligence.
Team Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
Assesses the leadership style of a team. It represents an extension of transforming leadership definitions from the individual to the collective.
Work Environment Scale
Helps evaluate productivity, assess employee satisfaction, and clarify employee expectations to ensure a healthy work environment.
Work Self-Efficacy Inventory
Measures a range of job behaviors and practices referring to beliefs in one's command of the social requirements necessary for success in the workplace.