The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ (MLQ) measures a broad range of leadership types from passive leaders, to leaders who give contingent rewards to followers, to leaders who transform their followers into becoming leaders themselves. Highly transformational leaders can, however, be highly effective without being authentic (e.g. Hitler), as defined below.
The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) measures key components of authentic leadership:
This combination of instruments is offered for the convenience of conducting a single survey rather than two separate surveys on Mind Garden's Transform system. For purchase of Reports or for PDF licenses, see each instrument separately.
MLQ Copyright © 1995 by Bernard Bass & Bruce J. Avolio; ALQ Copyright © 2007 by Bruce J. Avolio, William L. Gardner, & Fred O. Walumbwa
Features of the ALQ + MLQ
Purpose: Measure transformational leadership along with authenticity in leadership
Length: 61 items
Average completion time: 25-30 minutes
Target population: Working adults
Administration: For individual or group administration
Uses of the ALQ + MLQ
Builds Trust (Idealized Attributes)
Acts with Integrity (Idealized Behaviors)
Encourages Others (Inspirational Motivation)
Encourages Innovative Thinking (Intellectual Stimulation)
Coaches & Develops People (Individualized Consideration)
Rewards Acheivement (Contingent Reward)
Monitors Deviations & Mistakes (Management-by-Exception: Active)
Fights Fires (Management-by-Exception: Passive)
Avoids Involvement (Laissez-Faire)
Outcomes of Leadership:
Generates Extra Effort
Is Productive (Effectiveness)
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American Psychological Association press release reports that the MLQ predicts leadership in battlefield simulations. See "Leadership Styles That Use Rewards and Shared Values Help Platoons Perform Well in Simulated Combat Situations: Implications for Leadership Training in the Military" at the American Psychological Association (3/26/03).
How transformational leadership works: Kaiser, Robert B. and Robert Hogan and S. Bartholomew Craig (2008). "Leadership and the fate of organizations." American Psychologist, 63(2) 96-110.
"Research on how leaders affect followers' self-concepts indicates that transformational leadership works by influencing followers to identify with a collective enterprise and to internalize group aspirations. Transactional leadership appeals to followers' self-interest, but transformational leadership changes the way followers see themselves—from isolated individuals to members of a larger group. Transformational leaders do this by modeling collective commitment (e.g., through self-sacrifice and the use of “we” instead of “I”), emphasizing the similarity of group members, and reinforcing collective goals, shared values, and common interests. When followers see themselves as members of a collective, they tend to endorse group values and goals, and this enhances their motivation to contribute to the greater good."
Research findings on transformational leadership from "Context and leadership: an examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire" by John Antonakis, Bruce J. Avolio and Nagaraj Sivasubramaniam, The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), June 2003, 261-295:
A practical guide to leadership development based on the world's most thoroughly researched leadership development model.
Conversational and accessible, this Second Edition of Bruce J. Avolio's groundbreaking book uses the full range leadership development model as an organizing framework and shows how it can be directly applied to improving leadership at the individual, team, and organizational levels. Filled with examples that show how the full range model comes to life in today's global world, Full Range Leadership Development, Second Edition, demonstrates how people, timing, resources, the context of interaction, and expected results in performance and motivation all contribute to effective leadership.
Over the last decade, the full range model has become the most researched model in the leadership literature—and the most validated—and has been proven to be an accurate guide for developing exemplary leadership in diverse cultures, organizations, and leadership positions. The new edition shows how the process of leadership development is linked to validation and how the process of validation informs accelerated leadership development.
John J. Sosik and Don I. Jung (2010). Full Range Leadership Development: Pathways for People, Profit and Planet. Taylor and Francis.
It has been more than 20 years since Bernie Bass presented an integrated overview of full range leadership development. This has been the standard for providing leadership training around the world in business, military, religious and educational contexts. Penn State University’s master of leadership development program is directed by John J. Sosik and uses these transactional –transformational leadership paradigms as their foundation for their courses. This book can be used as a main textbook for this course and supplement any IO course in the area of leadership development.
Full range leadership development strives to grow transformational leadership in organizations at all levels, including followers, thereby generating numerous positive outcomes at all levels. Organizations that support and develop transformational leadership across organizational levels are more productive and profitable, attract and retain high quality associates, promote creativity and innovation, garner trust and commitment from employees, and are strategically positioned to respond well to changes in the market.
This book presents the different theories of leadership and concentrate on the process model of Full Range Leadership that explains the concepts and procedures by which leaders affect their followers (individual leadership), teams (leader to team), and organizations (leader to larger systems). This book can be used by practitioners or students, as the authors provide practical action steps for how to best develop and display behaviors in the Full Range Leadership Development model.